hydraulic geometry A description of the adjustments made by a stream in response to changes in discharge at a cross-section and in the downstream direction. Adjustments are made in width, mean depth, mean velocity, slope, frictional resistance, suspended-sediment load, and water-surface gradient.
- 1 What is hydraulic geometry?
- 2 What does hydraulic mean in rivers?
- 3 What is at a station hydraulic geometry?
- 4 What is stream channel geometry?
- 5 Why is open channel flow important?
- 6 What does Bradshaw model show?
- 7 What are hydraulics simple definition?
- 8 What is the concept of hydraulic?
- 9 What are hydraulics used for?
- 10 What is the hydraulic radius of a river?
- 11 What is hydraulic radius?
- 12 What comprises the suspended loads of most rivers and streams?
- 13 What type of channel geometry is most efficient and why?
- 14 How do straight streams form?
- 15 What makes a river more sinuous?
What is hydraulic geometry?
Hydraulic geometry deals with variation in channel characteristics in relation to variations in discharge. Two sets of variations take place: variations at a particular cross section (at-a-station) and variations along the length of the stream (downstream variations).
What does hydraulic mean in rivers?
The hydraulic geometry of rivers is the study of how the features of a river affect its geometry – its width, depth, shape, and flow patterns. There, the river will quickly flow downhill. These streams are small and fast flowing.
What is at a station hydraulic geometry?
Reach scale at-a-station hydraulic geometry describes the variation of mean water depth and width with discharge within a stream reach. The ability to understand and predict the form of these hydraulic geometry relationships across river networks therefore represents a powerful tool for river managers.
What is stream channel geometry?
The geometry of a stream channel is controlled by both water and sediment movement, which reflect regional climate, geology, and human land use in a given drainage basin.
Why is open channel flow important?
An open channel is the flow of liquids that flows with a free surface, and are at some point “open” to the atmosphere. more important that open channel flows are metered effectively and efficiently – minimizing the overall margin of error.
What does Bradshaw model show?
Bradshaw Model = theoretical model that shows how a river’s characteristics change as it goes downstream. If the triangle increases in size it means that variable increases the further you go down the stream e.g. the amount of water (discharge) in the stream increases as you move down the stream.
What are hydraulics simple definition?
: a branch of science that deals with practical applications (such as the transmission of energy or the effects of flow) of liquid (such as water) in motion.
What is the concept of hydraulic?
Hydraulics is mechanical function that operates through the force of liquid pressure. In hydraulics-based systems, mechanical movement is produced by contained, pumped liquid, typically through cylinders moving pistons.
What are hydraulics used for?
Hydraulics are often used for moving parts of mechanical systems that need to lift or push heavy objects. The landing gear in an aircraft use several hydraulic cylinders to move the wheels into place and to cushion the aircraft’s landing.
What is the hydraulic radius of a river?
The hydraulic radius is the term used to describe the shape of a channel. It is the ratio between the length of the wetted perimeter and the cross-section area.
What is hydraulic radius?
: the ratio of the cross-sectional area of a channel or pipe in which a fluid is flowing to the wetted perimeter of the conduit.
What comprises the suspended loads of most rivers and streams?
Suspended load is composed of fine sediment particles suspended and transported through the stream. These materials are too large to be dissolved, but too small to lie on the bed of the stream (Mangelsdorf, 1990). Stream flow keeps these suspended materials, such as clay and silt, from settling on the stream bed.
What type of channel geometry is most efficient and why?
Maximum flow (water and sediment load) is only possible when the cross-sectional form attains the semi-circular or parabolic shape (Knighton 1998) or equilateral-triangular or rectangular (Hickin 2004) shape. These shapes generate the minimum turbulence and shear stress hence channel becomes the ‘most efficient’.
How do straight streams form?
Straight channels, mainly unstable, develop along the lines of faults and master joints, on steep slopes where rills closely follow the surface gradient, and in some delta outlets. Flume experiments show that straight channels of uniform cross section rapidly develop pool-and-riffle sequences.
What makes a river more sinuous?
Thus meander bends erode at the outside bend, causing the river to becoming increasingly sinuous (until cutoff events occur). Deposition at the inside bend occurs such that for most natural meandering rivers, the river width remains nearly constant, even as the river evolves.